The Best Learning Guide

written by Stanley Udegbunam || Dec 20, 2020

What is conduction (learning guide)



Conduction is the transfer of heat or electricity between two matter in contact through direct molecular collision.

It requires a material medium for its propagation and it doesn’t travel through a vacuum.

Conduction is one of the modes of heat transfer, the others been convection and radiation.

For heat to be transferred between two bodies in contact, there must be a temperature difference.

Heat flows from high-temperature regions to low-temperature regions and this will result in either a loss or gain of thermal energy.


They are three major types of conduction:

  1. Thermal Conduction
  2. Electrical Conduction
  3. Sound Conduction


Thermal conduction is a conductive process by which heat is transferred in a material through the microscopic movement of the particles in the medium.

In thermal conduction, heat is transferred without physically transporting the material from one position to another.

This means that thermal conduction does not require the physical movement of the material from one location to another.

The tendency of a substance to conduct heat varies depending on the nature of the material.

Materials with higher thermal conductivities conduct better than those with lower thermal conductivities.

Thermal conductivity refers to how highly or poorly a medium conducts heat.

It’s highest in solids and lowest in gases.

When we iron clothes, the heat is thermally conducted from the iron plate to the cloth in contact with the plate.

thermal conduction from hot iron plate


Electrical conduction is the movement of electrically charged particles through a transmission medium.

Electrical energy is generated when electrons move from one atom to another through a conducting material.

This movement sets up an electric field around the charged particles.

The flow of electric charge through a conducting material produces electricity.

Electrical Conduction in metals and resistors is governed by Ohm’s Law.

Metals are good conductors because they have a high free – electron density.

A good example of electrical conduction is Lightening.

Lightening is caused by excess charged particles in the cloud.

conduction through electrical charges


Sound conduction is the conduction of pressured air particles in the form of sound waves to the eardrums through a propagation medium.

A biological example of sound conduction is bone conduction in which sound is conducted as subtle vibrations through the bones of the skull to the inner ear.

A sound is a form of energy, just like electricity and light.

Sound waves are created when air molecules vibrate about their mean position and moves in a pattern like motion.

The stronger the vibrations produced, the louder the sound.

The music speaker and other sound devices utilizes the principle of sound conduction to produce sounds.

sound conduction through ear bones
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