STORM BREAKERS PROJECT

STORM BREAKERS PROJECT

PROJECT PARTNERS: AIESEC ENUGU AND AFRILCATE

GET TO KNOW AIESEC

AIESEC is a global platform for young people to explore and develop their leadership potential.

A non-political, independent, not-for-profit organisation run by students and recent graduates of institutions of higher education.

Its members are interested in world issues, leadership and management.

Since it’s inception, AIESEC has developed over 1,000,000 young people who have been through an AIESEC experience.

The impact of the organisation can be seen through our alumni who represent business, NGOs and world leaders, including one Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Martti Ahtisaari of Finland.

Primary information source examples

ABOUT AIESEC ENUGU

AIESEC Enugu is a regional entity of AIESEC in the eastern part of Nigeria.

With over 70 members, AIESEC Enugu extends the mission of the organization in its entity state.

AIESEC Week is a one week event slated by the organization to carry out tasks relating to different SDG’s.

For AIESEC Enugu, AIESEC Week is scheduled from 24th May – 30th May 2021 for the 2nd quarter of the AIESEC YEAR.

AIESEC ENUGU-PHOTO

THE STORM BREAKERS PROJECT 

In line with the AIESEC Week, team Storm Breakers will be working on an SDG 4 Project.

They will be delivering a key seminar titled “Emotional Intelligence and It’s Importance in Health Care”.

This seminar will be delivered to tertiary students of College of Nursing Science and Health Technology, Nsukka Enugu State.

Date of event: 25th May, 2021

Key Learning Objectives

  • Importance of self awareness in health care.
  • Managing social environment and relationships. 

At  AFRILCATE, we are very happy to be part of this project.

To us, AIESEC Enugu is not just an organization but a family of like minds sharing ideas and contributing positively to the growth of the community.

Stanley Udegbunam

MEET OUR SPEAKERS

AIESEC SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION

AIESEC SURVEY AND CERTIFICATION

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12 Adverse Effects of Acid Rain (updated)

12 Adverse Effects of Acid Rain (updated)

12 Adverse Effects of Acid Rain

Written by Stanley Udegbunam || Dec 15, 2020

12 adverse effects of acid rain

AFRILCATE

12 ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN

  1. Acid rain enters water bodies as runoff. This makes water bodies toxic to crayfish fish and other aquatic animals.
  2. The lowered pH level of acid rain prevents the hatching of fish eggs and kill parent fishes.
  3. Acid rain drastically alters the biodiversity, food webs and overall health of the aquatic environment.
  4. In an interconnected ecosystem, the rest of the food chain and non-aquatic species like birds are often affected negatively through food poisoning.
  5. Acid rain harms forests by damaging trees, leaves and also stunts their growth.
  6. It deprives the soil of its essential nutrient thereby making it hard for trees to take up water through transpiration pull.
  7. Acid rain has been linked to thinner eggshells in many bird species such as warblers and other songbirds.
  8. Acid rain and acid fog also damage forests, especially those at higher elevations.
  9. Causes corrosion of steel structures such as cars, railroad tracks, airplanes, steel bridges, and pipes above and below ground.
  10. Causes weathering of stone buildings and statues, especially those made of materials with large amounts of calcium carbonate like limestone and marble.
  11. There are no direct health issues associated with acid rain. Dry deposition, however, can contribute to heart and lung problems, such as asthma and bronchitis.
  12. Nitrogen oxides present in acid rain contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, a major pollutant that’s harmful to humans.

OVERVIEW OF ACID RAIN

“The fossil fuels that humans burn for energy can come back to haunt us in the form of acid rain.”

Acid rain is any form of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid that fall to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms.

Acid rain is also called acid deposition.

Acid rain doesn’t refer to only rainwater with low pH but also to every acidic deposition that falls from the atmosphere.

Therefore snow, fog and hail can be called acid rain if they have a low ph level.

Apart from the generic name (acid rain),

  • snow with a high acidic value can also be referred to as acid snow,
  • fog with high acidic value is termed acid fog and
  • hail with a high acidic value is also called acid hail.

Acid rain is caused by emissions of gasses like sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) in the atmosphere.

Although acid-rain gases may originate in urban areas, they are often carried for hundreds of miles by winds into rural areas.

This is why forests and lakes in the countryside also get affected by acid rain.

The harmful effects of acid rain is listed above.

Let’s further break it down and see how it affects aquatic bodies, forest life, structures, and humans.

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON AQUATIC BODIES

  1. Acid rain enters water bodies as runoff. This makes water bodies toxic to crayfish fish and other aquatic animals.
  2. The lowered pH level of acid rain prevents the hatching of fish eggs and kill parent fishes.
  3. Acid rain drastically alters the biodiversity, food webs and overall health of the aquatic environment.
effects of acid rain on aquatic bodies

acid rain causes death of fishes and aquatic animals

EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON FOREST LIVES AND PLANTS

  1. In an interconnected ecosystem, the rest of the food chain and non-aquatic species like birds are often affected negatively through food poisoning.
  2. Acid rain harms forests by damaging trees, leaves and also stunts their growth.
  3. It deprives the soil of its essential nutrient thereby making it hard for trees to take up water through transpiration pull.
  4. Acid rain has been linked to thinner eggshells in many bird species such as warblers and other songbirds.
  5. Acid rain and acid fog also damage forests, especially those at higher elevations.
effects of acid rain on plants

acid rain depletes soil nutrients and negatively affects vegetation growth.

EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON LANDS, STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS

  1. Causes corrosion of steel structures such as cars, railroad tracks, airplanes, steel bridges, and pipes above and below ground.
  2. Causes weathering of stone buildings and statues, especially those made of materials with large amounts of calcium carbonate like limestone and marble.
effects of acid rain on buildings

fracturing of statue as a result of acid rain

EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON HUMANS

  1. There are no direct health issues associated with acid rain. Dry deposition, however, can contribute to heart and lung problems, such as asthma and bronchitis.
  2. Nitrogen oxides present in acid rain contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, a major pollutant that’s harmful to humans.

HOW TO PREVENT ACID RAIN

The only way to prevent acid rain is by curbing the release of the pollutants that causes it. this means burning fewer fossil fuels and setting air-quality standards.

Alternative energy sources like renewable energy is a greener approach to combat air pollution.

On a smaller scale, we can reduce the formation of acid rain by turning off bulbs and electrical outlets when not in use thereby conserving energy.

What is Acid Rain? Causes, Effects and Prevention

What is Acid Rain? Causes, Effects and Prevention

What is Acid Rain?

Causes, Effects and  Prevention

Written by Stanley Udegbunam || Dec 15, 2020

acid rain

AFRILCATE

WHAT IS ACID RAIN?

Acid rain is any form of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid that fall to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms.

Acid rain is also called acid deposition.

Contrary to popular belief, acid rain doesn’t refer to only rains that are acidic, the term covers every acidic deposition that falls from the atmosphere.

This means snow, fog, hail or even dust can be called acid rain if it has a low ph level.

In this form, it’s called dry deposition but in the liquid form, it’s wet deposition.

Inother words, both dry and wet deposition can be called acid rain if it has a low pH value.

Can you recall the pH scale?

Pure water has a pH of 7, a neutral value.

Anything below that is acidic while above is basic.

Normal rainwater which is considered clean is a little bit acidic with a pH of about 5.2 meaning its slightly acidic.

But, rainwater can also have elevated levels of hydrogen ion with pH within the range of 4.2 -4.5.

In 2000, the most acidic rain that fell in the United States had a pH of 4.3.

ph of acid rain

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF ACID RAIN?

Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) in the atmosphere.

The SO2 and NOx react with water droplets, oxygen and other chemicals in the atmosphere to form sulfuric and nitric acids.  

When the cloud becomes saturated, the precipitate mixture then falls to the ground as acid rain.

Recall: nitrogen oxide is the combination of NO and NO2

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are produced from either man-made sources or natural sources.

Man-made sources account majorly for the release of these gases, it includes:

  • The burning of fossil fuels by power-production industries releases sulfur into the air (accounts for 2/3 of SOand 1/4 of NOx )
  • Exhausts from cars cause the formation of nitrogen oxides in the air.

The natural source includes:

  • Volcanoes: Sulphur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions.
  • Lightening: produces nitrogen oxide
  • Decaying vegetation

These gases dissolve in water vapor in the cloud to form acid rain.

When gasses like SO2 and NOx are released into the atmosphere, It can be blown by the wind over long distances and across borders.

This makes acid rain a problem for everyone and not just those who live close to the gas emission source.

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN

There are numerous harmful effects of acid rain most especially on aquatic bodies.

  • Acid rain enters water bodies as runoff. This makes water bodies toxic to crayfish and other aquatic animals.
  • The lowered pH level of acid rain prevents the hatching of fish eggs and kill parent fishes.
  • In an interconnected ecosystem, the rest of the food chain and non-aquatic species like birds are often affected negatively through food poisoning.
  • Acid rain harms forests by damaging trees and leaves.
  • It causes corrosion of steel structures like bridges.
  • Nitrogen oxides present in acid rain contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, a major pollutant that’s harmful to humans.
effects of acid rain

WHAT CAN BE DONE?

Since 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency has required companies that emit these two chemicals causing acid rain to make major reductions in their emissions.

Individually, you can also play a role to mitigate acid rain.

Any step you can take to conserve energy will reduce the amounts of fossil fuels that are burned to produce that energy, thereby reducing the formation of acid rain.

This also includes turning off your bulbs, computer, tv set when not in use.

By investing in renewable energies, we can also reduce unnecessary air pollution.

Transpiration in Plants – The Best Learning Guide (2021)

Transpiration in Plants – The Best Learning Guide (2021)

Transpiration in Plants – The Best Learning Guide (2021)

Compiled by Stanley Udegbunam || Dec 10, 2020

AFRILCATE

WHAT IS TRANSPIRATION?

Transpiration is a process that involves the loss of water vapor from plant tissues.

It can be referred to as the evaporation of water from plant tissue mainly through the stomates of leaves.

Transpiration occurs mainly at the surfaces of leaves when their stomata are open.

The opening of the stomata creates a pathway for the passage of carbon dioxide and oxygen during photosynthesis.

Since stomatal openings are necessary for oxygen escape and carbon dioxide intake, transpiration is generally considered an unavoidable natural phenomenon.

Although transpiration occurs majorly through the stomates of leaves, plants also transpire through the cuticular layer and plant lenticels.

TYPES OF TRANSPIRATION

There are three different types of transpiration:

  1. Stomatal Transpiration
  2. Cuticular Transpiration
  3. Lenticular Transpiration

What is Stomatal Transpiration?

Stomatal transpiration is the direct evaporation of water through the stomata of the plants.

Stomata are small pores present in leaves. They are responsible for the transpiration of the majority of the water from the plant. Transpiration by crops is regulated by stomatal opening and closing.

The water near the surface of leaves changes into vapor and evaporates whenever the stomata are open. Water loss and CO2 uptake are reduced with the closing of the stomata.

The closing and opening of stomata can be affected by different factors like the degree of illumination, environmental temperature and water level of the plant.

Darkness and internal water deficit tend to close stomates and this decreases the transpiration rate.

On the other hand, illumination, ample water supply, and optimum temperature open stomates thereby increasing transpiration rate.

This opening and closing action in response to various environmental stimuli is governed by two guard cells that are present in plant stomates. They account for about 90% – 95% of water loss from the plants.

Darkness and internal water deficit tend to close stomates and this decreases the transpiration rate.

On the other hand, illumination, ample water supply, and optimum temperature open stomates thereby increasing transpiration rate.

This opening and closing action in response to various environmental stimuli is governed by two guard cells that are present in plant stomates.

They account for about 90% – 95% of water loss from the plants.

stomatal transpiration in leaves

What is Cuticular Transpiration?

Cuticular transpiration is the evaporation of water from the cuticle of the plants.

cuticles of leaves

The cuticle is a waxy covering on the surface leaves and stems of the plant.

Transpiration through plant cuticles dominates over stomatal transpiration in darkness and under extremely dry conditions due to stomatal closure. 

Cuticular transpiration is also paramount in plants having thin cuticles and lesser in dessert plant (xerophytes) because of their thick cuticles.

Cuticular transpiration accounts for only about 5% -10% of the total water loss from leaves.

What is Lenticular Transpiration?

This is the evaporation of water vapor from plants through the lenticels.

The lenticels are tiny openings in the bark of branches, wooden stems, twigs and fruits.

Like cuticular transpiration, transpiration through the lenticels is also significant in plants subjected to very dry conditions as a result of stomatal closure.

A major difference between Lenticular transpiration and cuticular transpiration is that:

Lenticular transpiration occurs both day and night because plant lenticels have no mechanism of closure, unlike cuticular transpiration that only takes place at night. The opening of the cuticles is triggered by darkness.

However, lenticular transpiration is responsible for the shriveled appearance of leftover fruits.

A minimal amount of water is lost through lenticels when compared to water loss from the other transpiration types.

Lenticular transpiration accounts for only 0.1% – 3% of plant’s total water loss.

transpiration through the lenticels of branches and stems

FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSPIRATION

Transpiration rate largely depends on two major factors:

  1. Environmental factors
  2. Plant factors

Environmental factors affecting transpsiration rate include:

  1. Light – stomata close in the dark and opens at the daytime. This makes illumination a major contributing factor.
  2. Relative humidity – this is the percentage ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to that required for saturation at a given temperature. The more the relative humidity, the lesser the transpiration rate.
  3. Temperature – high temperature opens the stomata even in darkness and lowers the relative humidity. Therefore, temperature increases the rate of transpiration.
  4. Atmospheric pressure – a low atmospheric pressure will result in a high transpiration rate.
  5. Wind speed – If the wind speed is high, saturated air around the leaves is removed and the transpiration rate increases.

Plant factors affecting the rate of transpiration include:

  1. The leaf orientation
  2. The number and distribution of stomates on the leaf
  3. Water status of the plant
  4. Structural Peculiarities of the leaf

ASCENT OF SAP

This is the upward movement of water and minerals from the root to the top of the plant.

When water evaporates from a plant, a pull is created from the roots through the xylem vessels, and water moves back to the leaves.

This suction force between the root and the ground is known as the transpiration pull.

The ascent of sap depends on the following properties of water:

  • Cohesion – This is the mutual attraction between water attraction.
  • Adhesion – The attraction of water molecules to the surface of the tracheary elements of xylem.
  • Surface tension – water molecules are more attracted to each other in the liquid phase than in the gas phase causing them to behave like a stretched membrane.

IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPIRATION

The importance of transpiration includes:

  1. Cooling: The cooling effect of a tree is due to the evaporation of water from its leaves.
  2. Movement of Minerals: Transpiration helps in the conduction of water and minerals to different parts of the plants.
  3. Photosynthesis: It provides the water needed for food manufactured by photosynthesis in the leaves.
  4. Cell turgidity: The cells in a plant absorb water via osmosis and swell up. This results in a build-up of pressure called turgor pressure and the cells are said to be turgid.
  5. Growth: Optimum transpiration helps in the proper growth of the plants.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON TRANSPIRATION

I have gathered some common questions and queries on transpiration and also provided the best possible answers to give you a better understanding of this topic.

Without further ado, let’s get started.

1. What is transpiration rate?

This is the rate at which plants absorb water through the roots and then give off water vapor through pores in their leaves.

2. What are the types of transpiration?

The different type of transpiration are:

  • Stomatal transpiration
  • Cuticular transpiration
  • Lenticel transpiration

3. What is Stomata transpiration?

This is the loss of water vapor through the stomata of the plant.

4. What is cuticular transpiration?

This is the loss of water vapor from the cuticles of the plant.

5. What is Lenticel transpiration?

This is the loss of water vapor through the lenticels.

6. Transpiration occurs mainly through?

Through the stomata. Stomata are small pores present in leaves. Stomatal transpiration accounts for 90%-95% of water loss in plants.

7. How does light affect transpiration?

Plant stomates contain two guard cell which controls the opening and closing of the stomates.

Illumination triggers these cells and causes the opening of the stomates. Hence stomatal transpiration is dominant during daytime

8. What is the importance of transpiration to plants?

Transpiration cools the surface of leaves, aids the movement of minerals, makes the cells rigid, provides water for photosynthesis and its required for the optimum growth of the plant.

DO YOU KNOW?

Excessive transpiration can be extremely injurious to a plant.

When water loss exceeds water intake, it can retard the plant’s growth and ultimately lead to death by dehydration.

The collective sum of evaporation from the land surface plus the transpiration from plants is called evapotranspiration.

DO YOU KNOW?

Excessive transpiration can be extremely injurious to a plant.

When water loss exceeds water intake, it can retard the plant’s growth and ultimately lead to death by dehydration.

The collective sum of evaporation from the land surface plus the transpiration from plants is called evapotranspiration.

What is Vaporization? Factors, Types and Examples (explained)

What is Vaporization? Factors, Types and Examples (explained)

What is Vaporization? Factors, types and Examples

Compiled by Stanley Udegbunam || Dec 08, 2020

AFRILCATE

WHAT IS VAPORIZATION?

Vaporization is the phase transition from the liquid phase to the vapor phase.

The molecules of a liquid are in constant motion and possess a wide range of kinetic energy.

With the addition of heat, some molecules gain energy sufficient enough to break the molecular bond.

 The molecules then escape from the liquid to the atmosphere as gas or vapor.

TYPES OF VAPORIZATION

There are two types of vaporization:

  1. Evaporation
  2. Boiling

Evaporation is the spontaneous transition of a substance from the liquid phase to the gaseous phase and it occurs at temperatures below the boiling temperature at a given pressure.

Evaporation occurs on liquid surfaces and is only initiated when the partial pressure of the vapor of a substance is less than the equilibrium vapor pressure.

As water molecules evaporate, the liquid surface gets cooler, a phenomenon called evaporative cooling.

Similar to evaporation, boiling is also the phase transition from the liquid phase to the gaseous phase.

The major difference between boiling and evaporation is that boiling is a bulk process and only occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, unlike evaporation that’s a surface phenomenon, occurs slowly and across any temperature and it’s driven only by pressure difference.

During boiling, the entire bulk of the liquid, the liquid molecule (interior and surface inclusive) all gain sufficient energy to change to vapor state.

The boiling process begins when the equilibrium vapor pressure of the substance is greater than or equal to the environmental pressure.

The temperature at which boiling occurs is the boiling temperature or boiling point.

The boiling point varies with the pressure of the environment.

definition of vaporization - water vaporizing at boiling point

At boiling point, water vaporizes into steam

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF VAPORIZATION

There are different factors that affect the rate of vaporization. 

They Include:

  1. Temperature
  2. Pressure
  3. Molecular Bond
  4. Surface Area
  5. Wind speed

1. Temperature: With an increase in temperature, the molecules gain more kinetic energy and the rate of vaporization increases.

2. Pressure: The higher the atmospheric pressure, the more difficult it is to reach boiling point and more energy will be required to cause boiling.

3. Molecular bond: A substance with a weak molecular bond will boil faster than one with a stronger bond because less energy is required to overcome the force of attraction.

4. Surface area: With the increase in surface area, the rate of vaporization also increases as a greater number of particles is exposed to the change in temperature.

5. Wind speed: Impurities like particles in the air are the major cause of high external pressure. With an increase in wind speed, the vaporization rate increases as particles are driven away by the wind.

WHAT IS HEAT OF VAPORIZATION?

Heat of vaporization is the amount of energy required to transform a given quantity of liquid to gas.

The heat of vaporization is temperature-dependent, though a constant heat of vaporization can be assumed for small temperature ranges.

Don’t get confused, the heat of vaporization is the same as enthalpy of vaporization since heat is synonymous with enthalpy.

Heat of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. 

At 100 °C (boiling point), the heat of vaporization for water is 5 40 cal/g (2,260 kJ/kg).

EXAMPLES OF VAPORIZATION

  • wet clothes get dried when placed under the sun due to the process of vaporization.
  • Salt is recovered naturally by vaporization of seawater.
  • Vaporization is utilized in many industrial processes for separating the components of a mixture.

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